Monday, May 25, 2020
A contract has been awarded under competitive negotiated procedures and an unsuccessful offeror wanted to know why they were not the winner. The Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) provides an approach to this issue by offering an organized correspondence with the unsuccessful offeror and the government. An unsuccessful offeror may submit a request to the contracting officer for clarification on why they did not win the award. This request is called a debriefing. The debriefing provides feedback from the government on the unsuccessful offerorÃ¢â¬â¢s proposal explaining the process in depth as to why they were not selected. Only certain information is shared and will vary depending on whether the debriefing is conducted prior to or afterÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦(FAR 15.505) Submitting a timely request for a Preaward Debriefing is essential if the offeror wants to make certain that the debriefing will take place. If an offeror submits a request for a debriefing within the three day window, the Government should conduct the debriefing within five days after an offerorÃ¢â¬â¢s request. When the offeror delivers a timely request for a debriefing, the Government must propose a scheduled debriefing date in writing and have the offeror acknowledge the requested debriefing date immediately. If the debriefing date is unavailable for the offeror and they request a later time, the original debriefing date must be acknowledged by the offeror in writing and the request for a later date, such as after the award is announced. In the delayed Pre-award Debriefing (after award), it must include all of the information normally provided in the second type of debriefing, a Postaward Debriefing. (Marine Corps Specific). Postaward Debriefings are conducted after notification of award and the offerorÃ¢â¬â¢s request for the Postaward Debriefing must be received by the Government within three days after the date on which the offeror received notification of the contract award. It is ideal for the debriefing to occur within five days after receipt of the written request, including offerors who requested the delayed Preaward Debriefing. A Postaward Debriefing may also be conducted orally, in writing,Show MoreRelatedA Discussion Of Administrative Law Essay1181 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesA Discussion of Administrative Law Congress and the state legislature pass laws that align to the U.S. Constitution. However, the laws enacted are general provisions that do not explain how they should be utilized. Consequently, federal, state, and local agencies must define the policies and regulations of the statutes. The rules and regulations established by the agency are known as administrative laws (Walsh, Maniotis, Kemerer, 2014). Educators must follow the laws passed by the state legislatureRead MoreImplementing Integrated Product And Process Development1547 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesconcurrent engineering, and total quality management. In the early 1980s, U.S. industry used the concept of integrated design as a way to improve global competitiveness. Industry s implementation of IPPD expanded concurrent engineering concepts to include all disciplines, not just technical, associated with the design, development, manufacture, distribution, support, and management of products and services. Diverse segments of U.S. industry have successfully implemented this concept to become recognizedRead MoreTranslating the Federal Acquisition Regulation Clause1048 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesTitle Date The Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) is the chief body of rules in the Federal Acquisition Regulation System used by the United States government. The Federal Acquisition Regulation was created to govern the process of purchasing goods and services. The process consists of three phases. These are, need recognition and acquisition planning, contract formation, and contract administration. The FAR System provides uniform policies and procedures for acquisition by all executive agenciesRead MoreLegal and Administrative Framework of the Federal Procurement Project1393 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Legal and Administrative Framework of the Federal Procurement Process by Instructor: Course Title: January 18, 2012 The Legal and Administrative Framework of the Federal Procurement Process Introduction Highly publicized incidents such as the federal government purchasing at $500 hammer or $2,500 toilet seat continue to capture headlines as examples of a federal procurement process gone awry, but these notorious examples have become few and far between in recent years, due in largeRead MoreAcquisition Process Competition Requirements675 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesAcquisition Process Competition Requirements The process of choosing a contractor in a competitive acquisition process can be regarded as an issue of information processing where the decision-maker gathers information from competing firms, evaluates each alternative based on established criteria, and determines the best firm or alternative based on the results of the evaluation. While there are various processes that are used in contracting such as sealed bidding and negotiation, the processRead MoreRole Of Contracting Officer And The Small Business Association1417 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagespurpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the small business set-aside program and its intent. We will look at the role the contracting officer and the Small Business Association (SBA) play in the making the determination to set-aside acquisitions specifically for small business set-asides and the factors they consider when making those decisions/determinations. There are certain criteria that must be met and we will discuss those crit eria in relation to the type of set-aside and the amountRead MoreHistory Of The Small Business Program1382 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSmall Business Program In 1932, President Hoover tried to mitigate the Great Depression by creating The Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC). The purpose of the RFC was to try to help businesses no matter what size large and small by providing federal funds. In 1942, Congress created the Smaller War Plants Corporation (SWPC) to help small businesses during World War II. Funds were provided for financial institutions to help give credit to struggling small business owners. When the war endedRead MoreHistory Of The Small Business Program1500 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSmall Business Program In 1932, President Hoover tried to mitigate the Great Depression by creating The Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC). The purpose of the RFC was to try to help businesses no matter what size large and small by providing federal funds. In 1942, Congress created the Smaller War Plants Corporation (SWPC) to help small businesses during World War II. Funds were provided to financial institutions to help give credit to struggling small business owners. When the war ended SWPCRead MoreOperational Risk Case Study1335 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesgovernment regulation, and new regulations may increase operating costs. Airlines are subject to extensive regulatory and legal compliance requirements that result in significant costs (Delta Airlines Inc., 2017). The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) from time to time issues directives and other regulations relating to the maintenance and operation of aircraft that necessitate significant expenditures. The company expects to continue incurrin g expenses to comply with the Federal Aviation AdministrationRead MoreThe Reform And Consumer Protection Act ( Dodd Frank )1623 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageslong-term deficit increases. Regulation: Financial legislation has always played a crucial role in the safety and soundness of the banking industry. Since the 2008 financial crisis, mostly caused by loose lending practices and lack of credit standards, bank regulation pressures have increased considerably. The increased regulatory burden is playing a toll on community financial institutions who cannot keep up with the overhead cost it takes to meet the new regulations. It is frustrating community
Thursday, May 14, 2020
In the 1985 movie Ã¢â¬Å"Love is Never SilentÃ¢â¬ it is set during the great depression and follows the Ryder family, Abel and Janice two deaf parents of two hearing children Margaret and Bradley. Abel works for a newspaper company on the printing press, Janice is a seamstress. The parents rely on the oldest child Margaret as their link to the hearing world by being their voice. In the beginning tragedy hits the family as the RyderÃ¢â¬â¢s youngest child Bradley falls from their second story apartment and dies. Now that Margaret is the only hearing child she feels obligated to always be available for her parents when they need her. When she goes with her parents to a Mortuary she has to help them purchase a wood box instead of a coffin for her brotherÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦William joins the military and while heÃ¢â¬â¢s gone Margaret invites WilliamÃ¢â¬â¢s mother Mrs. Anglin and brother Marshall to her parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ house for dinner, which doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t go well beca use Mr. and Mrs. Ryder refuse to sign in an even more awkward silence. William comes back injured but not crippled and they live with her parents until heÃ¢â¬â¢s accepted into college. MargaretÃ¢â¬â¢s parents are sad to see her go but as soon as they can they go see her and it was unannounced. MargaretÃ¢â¬â¢s parents are very upset to see the place where sheÃ¢â¬â¢s living and go to sign how upset they are that William hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t provided better for their daughter. Her parents never visit her again. The next time Margaret sees her parents is when sheÃ¢â¬â¢s very pregnant to let them know that theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll be grandparents. Lastly William and Margaret move into better housing where they will raise their child till William graduates from college. Margaret and William invite everyone to their baby shower after the birth of their son and her parents show up after everyone has gone. Margaret is upstairs with her son and William answers the door and her parents surprise her. When they see each other all the turmoil between them is gone and they enjoy each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s company. The movie ends with JaniceÃ¢â¬â¢s retirement party where Abel, Margaret, William and their son go and JaniceÃ¢â¬â¢s signs a speech that MargaretShow MoreRelatedThe Hermits1206 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswas also there sailing to visit the holy shrines. Then they saw a group of people gathered together. One merchant said to the Bishop that the fisherman is telling them about the hermits who lived in an island nearby the sea. Before the fisherman never had a chance to see the three hermits, until last summer, he saw them by himself. He said to the bishop that one of the three hermitÃ¢â¬â¢s looks tiny, bent, but he keeps smiling. Another, a little taller, also old, in a torn coat, but he is a powerfulRead MoreLiterary Analysis Of Ethan Frome1739 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesgoing to perpetually attempt to demonstrate his love to Mattie Silver, as well try to make her like him. Furthermo re, as a result of EthanÃ¢â¬â¢s strong obsession to be with Mattie, I can elicit that Ethan is going to incorrectly assume and interpret Mattie gestures, due to his obsession and will not be thinking clearly about her actions. Which, is evident in the passage being he took incorrect ideas into his brain, by seeing Mattie with Denis Eady. (96) Summary Previously, before the passage, Ethan FromeRead MoreRachel Louise Carson and the Environmental Movement Essay1361 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesadoration of the ocean and nature. She made the decision to pursue her lifelong love of the ocean and became a Marine Biology student at the Pennsylvania College for Women, where she graduated in 1929. But it was not until the 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s when Carson was working as a scientist and editor for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceÃ¢â¬â¢s Fisheries Bureau, that her passion and literary work would take her to a level of popularity she had never known before. By 1958, Carson had become very popular as a writer and environmentalistRead MoreAnalysis Of Editha By William Dean Howells And The Yellow Wallpaper1070 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesgender rule for most men and women were enforcing it. In the story, Editha make it a point to George that she cannot love him unless he was in the war and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t really care to hear his point for not wanting to join th e war. The main point of realism the author, William Dean Howells, showed was the effect that war had on society during the 19th century during which many would call the love and marriage era. The Yellow Wallpaper is another piece of evidence that I have found to depict Ã¢â¬Å"Realism.Ã¢â¬ TheRead MoreVultures Comparison with What Were They Like801 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescommandant, but rather explores whether there is hope because there is love everywhere, or whether there is despair, because even though love is there, evil is still always present. However, in WWTL, Levertov is obviously focusing on the effects of the evil of people rather than questioning the nature of evil itself in people. To begin with, Achebe relies heavily on juxtaposition and contrast to represent the co-existence of love and evil in people. The Ã¢â¬ËcommandantÃ¢â¬â¢ is described as having Ã¢â¬Ëhuman roastRead MoreArt Form for the Digital Age864 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesArt Form For The Digital Age Summary Ã¢â¬Å"Art Form For The Digital Age,Ã¢â¬ by Henry Jenkins is about gaming expanding and how its being considered a digital art. The growing game industry is said to be the most growing form of art in the economy today. The gaming industry has grown tremendously in the past century. It went from silent pong games to intense story plot and mind blowing real life graphics like Final Fantasy. Games are becoming more and more realistic, characters can talk, andRead MoreAnalysis of the Green Mile Essay1007 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesProfessor Janet Ward English 110 November 3, 2011 Summary of the Novel, Ã¢â¬Å"The Green MileÃ¢â¬ A summary of any novel by Stephen King has to include a small biography of the horror novelist, himself. Publishing this novel in 1996 as a serial novel, with the first edition actually coming out as one of six small paperbacks that were eventually made into one novel. Stephen King is well known for his horror novels, therefore, this summary of the novel Ã¢â¬Å"The Green MileÃ¢â¬ shows this book set in theRead More The Book of the Duchess, the Parliament of Fowls, and the House of Fame1628 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesevident. There are three major themes intertwined within the three works, which Chaucer has added to the Dream Vision genre. The first work, possibly written from 1368-1372, the Book of the Duchess begins with the love-sick narrator finally falling asleep as he reads the sad love story of Seys and Alcyone (originally written by Ovid). He dreams that he is in bed early in the morning, then out hunting in the forest. He follows a dog down a path and finds a knight dressed in black who laments theRead MoreEssay on Ode on a Grecian Urn by John Keats1525 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesOde on a Grecian Urn by John Keats Summary In the first stanza, the speaker, standing before an ancient Grecian urn, addresses the urn, preoccupied with its depiction of pictures frozen in time. It is the still unravishd bride of quietness, the foster-child of silence and slow time. He also describes the urn as a historian, which can tell a story. He wonders about the figures on the side of the urn, and asks what legend they depict, and where they are fromRead MoreAnalysis of a Walk to Remember1696 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIntroduction/ Writing Style: The author of A Walk to Remember is Nicholas Sparks. He was born on December 31,1965. According to Wikipedia he is an internationally best selling American author. He writes novels with themes that include Christianity, love, tragedy, and fate. He is currently the author of 12 published novels; including: Message in a Bottle, A Walk to Remember, and The Notebook. He lives in New Bern, North Carolina with his wife Catherine and their five children. I believe his purpose
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Redemption Review Ã¢â¬Å"I found that the negroes who had been declared free by the United States were not free, in fact that they were living under a code that made them worse than slaves; and I found that it was necessary, as commanding officer, to protect them, and I didÃ¢â¬ (pg. 55). Those are the words of Governor Adelbert Ames, a former general of the Union army, turned senator and later becoming the governor of Mississippi. Ames was advocate in ensuring that negroes receive the rights that they were promised. Nicholas Lemann uncovered some of the forgotten truths of racism in this novel, starting with displaying the importance that Ames played in the deep south during the post war and reconstruction period. Adelbert Ames married BlancheÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ames saw it as a tactical move maneuver to keep elite power, rather than a genuine change of mind. Negro voter gave Ames his victory over Alcorn, by a margin of thirty thousand voters. In Vicksburg, Mississippi, on July 4th, a celebration for Negro Republicans, when a group of whites with guns turned up and began shooting. Peter Crosby, a thirty-year-old black veteran and the county sheriff of Vicksburg, held the most important position in local government warned Ames of the counties unstable conditions. According to the author, these were CrosbyÃ¢â¬â¢s words, Ã¢â¬Å"There is a great excitement among the colored people and seems to be a settled determination among reckless, desperate white men to repeat Ã¢â¬ËMeridianÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (pg. 71). The whites began an up rise against the negroes of Vicksburg county. After getting word of the unfortunate events that had occurred, Ames returned to Jackson, Mississippi, where he was met by refugees from Vicksburg. He immediately sent Grant a telegram requesting federal troops. There were several out breaks of White Liners attackingÃ¢â¬â¢s in Mississippi, an account recorded from a Silver Creek, Mississippi, reported to President Grant, Ã¢â¬Å"Thae tak up the Corlded Peapel and Haung themÃ¢â¬ ¦We are Prass so We canÃ¢â¬â¢t stand it. If the law woant pertect ous we donÃ¢â¬â¢t what to doÃ¢â¬ (pg 77). White Line organizations was to reestablish the Democratic Party and their means was violent disruption to organize politicsShow MoreRelatedHarriet Beecher Stowe s Uncle Tom s Cabin3362 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pagesbe compliant to their masters and focus their attention into being devout Christians. Stowe portrays this stance through Tom who knows that through a peaceful submission to his masters and an unbreakable faith, he will ultimately achieve eternal freedom in heaven. However, I would argue that when we look at the sentimental affect that some of her characters, such as Tom, had on the readers of the time; it is easy to see how they were successful in promoting the abolitionist message despite the presenceRead MoreWomen as Commodity8915 Words Ã |Ã 36 PagesWOMEN AS COMMODITY Women As Commodity Since ancient times, There people who are being sold just like a mere things sold in a market to be slaves, pimp, and its quiet alarming that even naive child is a victim of this kind of discursive life. Women have been also analyzed to be part of those bundles of things paraded, bidded for, sold, and traded off despite the fact that women are making huge contributions for the development of their countries in different aspects today, still women are beingRead MoreWomen as Commodity8899 Words Ã |Ã 36 PagesWOMEN AS COMMODITY Women As Commodity Since ancient times, There people who are being sold just like a mere things sold in a market to be slaves, pimp, and its quiet alarming that even naive child is a victim of this kind of discursive life. Women have been also analyzed to be part of those bundles of things paraded, bidded for, sold, and traded off despite the fact that women are making huge contributions for the development of their countries in different aspects today, still women are
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Critical Evaluation Report Quantitative Study. Answer: Introduction Critical appraisal of a journal involves evaluating the research article systematically to determine its trust-worthiness, appropriateness and relevance to a particular context (Polit, 2016). Southern-Australian University has given various models for research critiquing as CASP (Critical-appraisal skill program), PEDro scale (Physiotherapy-evidence database), CONSORT, JADAD score, etc. The journal of Annals of Emergency-Medicine is an international journal that is published by the American-college of emergency physicians to improve the quality of medical-care.Annals are the largest circulating peer-reviewed journal in emergency- medicine with more than 33,000 subscribers. It has the highest impact-factor of 5.008 and is also cited longer than other emergency- medicine journals for 9.6 years as compared to 5.1 years of circulation of the competitor journal (Callaham, 2017).These informations about Annals motivate me to use this research in my practice confidently and provide quality- care. The authors Bugden, Scott, Clark, Johnstone and Shean are experts in the emergency-medicine field. The first four authors are from the Centre of applied health-economics, Menzies Health-institute (Queensland) of Griffith University. They are experienced in the NHMRC centre for research with excellence in nursing field and they have experience in Centre for health-practice innovations of Queensland. This study was conducted in Caboolture community hospital, Queensland at the north of Brisbane with 52,000 ED cases annually. The authors contributions motivates me to use the given research findings confidently in my practice to reduce the peripheral-intravenous catheter failure. Abstract The title is highly clear and congruent with the text. They have stated the objectives as to evaluate whether the failure of peripheral-intravenous (IV) catheters could be minimised by the skin-glue application with standard securement which is clear, specific and achievable. They have stated the aims/hypothesis as whether the failure rate of peripheral-IV catheters could be reduced by the skin-glue application and standardized securement and research design as single-site, 2-arm, non-blind, randomized-controlled trial and the samples of 360 adults with peripheral-IV catheter. They have given about the control (standard-securement) and experimental group (skin-glue with standard-securement) with study-instruments for primary outcomes (within 48 hours) and secondary outcomes (occlusion, site-infection, phlebitis/ dislodgement). They have given the findings based on the objectives with conclusions. Structuring the Study They have demonstrated their motivation for this study through an elaborate review of literature. According to the study, peripheral-IV catheters are inserted in nearly 80% of the hospitalized patients, with majority of the insertions in ED (Limm, 2013). Among which 33%- 69% of IV-devices fails prematurely due to infections, occlusions, phlebitis and/or dislodgement (Marsh, 2015a). This failure occurs mostly due to the improper fixation of peripheral-IV catheters in patients skin. Additionally, there is no clear evidence to show the best methods to secure peripheral-IV catheters. A newer method to improve the fixation of peripheral-IV catheter by using skin-glue (cyanoacrylate) at the insertion-site is employed in this study. Marsh (2015b) has stated the PIVC inserted in wards showed a reduction in failure-rate. The literatures quoted were current, relevant and comprehensive with correct reference citations. They could have included more evidences to describe about the failure rate o f skin-glue and the effect of skin-glue in reducing occlusion, phlebitis and dislodgement as like infection. There are no studies to compare skin-glue method with current best comparators to generalize the results. They have conducted a single insertion-site, two-armed RCT in 360 adults with 380 peripheral-IV catheters in ED and were randomized by Randomizers for clinical-trial software in 1:1 ratio; without blocking/stratifying to both standard-securement and skin-glue group. The skin-glue patients received one drop of cyanoacrylate-glue at the insertion-site and below the catheters hub. The standard care was carried-out based on Queensland- Departmental guidelines (2015) and measured the primary and secondary outcomes. They have stated the hypothesis as the skin-glue application on the insertion-site of peripheral-IV catheters in ED would minimize the failure rate at 48 hours which is a scientific hypothesis that explains the expected relationship between variables (Polit, 2016). They have not given hypothesis for secondary outcomes. The hypothesis indicates that the researchers are interested in testing the relationships of application of skin-glue with catheter failure rate. Sample The sample was adequately described. In this study, the samples were selected by 1 of 3 research nurses (trained ED) in ED for 16 hours/day for a period of 7 days/week. They have selected patients those who requires hospital admission and are 18 or more years of age with patent peripheral-IV catheter inserted in upper-limb with intact skin and that is inserted by an ED nurse/physician and those gave written- informed consent. They have determined a sample size of 174 in each of two groups as standard care and skin-glue group. They have selected only the samples having one peripheral- IV catheter and have confirmed the peripheral- IV catheters patency by flushing 10-mL of 0.9% saline into it. They have excluded patients who are known case of allergic to skin glue or standard securement material, presence of infection, phlebitis or thrombosis near the catheter, agitated patients, non-English samples without interpreter. Data collection The researchers have collected base- line demographic details as well as confounder (possible) details at the time of enrollment by using structured questionnaires with components as age, gender, intake of medications, number of PIVCs, insertion site, right or left upper- limb, professional who has inserted, PIVC gauge and hours from insertion to intervention and follow-up. The primary outcomes were measured in-person through direct visualization (for hospitalized patients) or through telephonic conversation (for discharged patients) at 48 hrs or more (Rickard, 2012, Webster, 2010). The authors have collected data for secondary outcomes through direct observation, chart- review as well as standardized client questionnaire. The data was collected by one of the three research nurses. The data are not described adequately. They have not mentioned the method of measuring study variables but they have described only the variables. For ex: they have described that they are measuring phlebi tis but the method of measuring phlebitis (scores or rating scales) are not described. The authors have measured the data for primary outcomes through the demographic and confounder details in both standard-securement and skin-glue group and for secondary outcomes as infection, occlusions, dislodgment and phlebitis through direct observation, reviewing the clients medical charts and standardized clients questionnaire. The authors have not clearly explained about the origin of measurement instruments. They have just mentioned about the references from Rickard (2012) which suggests that they could have taken this reference as their guide and could have prepared the self-structured measurement instruments. They have not adequately described about their measurement instruments for both primary and secondary outcomes. The authors have only described about the questionnaire for measurement, but the method of measurement was not given. They have not validated the data collection instrument s. The reliability of the measurement instruments were not assessed and reported. Ethical issues were not discussed except issues of follow-up. Data analysis The follow- up was complete enough to take the findings credible. Even the lower rate of follow-up loss (2.8% /PIVC and 0.83%/sample) that is similar in both the groups was managed by omitting the particular patients and only the patients with complete data were taken for analyses. They have not blinded the patients and staffs as it was impossible due to the subtle- color and appearance of skin- glue present at the time of intervention with follow-up. The research nurses were also not masked as they should allocate samples to skin- glue group and determine the integrity of intervention. There are significant differences (10%) (95% CI:18% to 2% with p=.02) between the failure rate of peripheral- IV catheter in skin- glue group and standard group. Significant reduction (7%) in dislodgement (95% confidence- interval: 13% to 0% with p=.04) was noted in skin- glue group. Phlebitis occlusion rates were also low in skin- glue but not statistically- significant. No infections are reported i n both groups. The statistics used is inferential statistics which is used to draw inferences from given data to general conditions in which both p-values with point-estimation (CI) were used in this study (Polit, 2016, Newcombe, 2012). The statistical analysis of primary outcomes suggests that peripheral- IV catheter failure was lower in the skin- glue group as compared to standard- group at a confidence interval of 95% at p.05 showing that there is a significant difference between both the groups and hence the statistical hypothesis is accepted (Polit, 2016). The analysis of secondary outcomes suggests that the difference between dislodgement of skin- glue group and standard- care group was statistically significant at a CI- 95% between 13% to 0% that showing increased significance difference between them p=.04 (p.05). The difference between phlebitis in both groups is less with confidence- interval of 95% between 5 to 3% and occlusion with CI 95% of 8 to 4% shows that they are st atistically significant. No evidence of infection in both groups (0%). Findings The findings of the study were expected. Enough information was presented to judge the results based on the objectives set by the researchers and have clearly and completely stated the results. The findings shows that the failure rate of PIVC was 10% lower in patients with skin-glue (17%) as compared to that of the standard group (27%) (Confidence interval 95%:18% to 2%; p=.02) and the secondary outcome of PIVC failure due to dislodgement was noted to be 7% less in the skin- glue group (7.0%) than standard group (14%) (CI 95%:13% to 0%). The failure rate of PIVC due to phlebitis as well as occlusion were found to be lowered in skin-glue group than standard group but were not statistically- significant. There are no infections in both the group. They stated that using IV lines with skin-glue are 5 times harder to fail. The individual patient analysis in standard (n=179) versus skin-glue group (n=170) shows that the PIVC failure rate was 52 and 31 and secondary failure rate was 51 and 28 respectively. The study was limited to only a particular area with local people-mix. They have not included the sclerotic drugs, anti-coagulants, potential confounders (no. of PIVC access, dwelling time) to generalize the results. The measurement of patient through telephones (n=209), might alter the results but the discharged samples were able to report complication (Rickard, 2012). PIVC failure tends to increase with dwelling time, which is not measured (Wallis, 2014). They suggested that they may proceed with cost-benefit analysis in the future, if financial needs are met. The researchers have mentioned the implications as use of skin-glue has reduced PIVC failure significantly (28%) and are simple and rapid method to carry-out in ED. There are no sufficient informations in this report to permit for replicating study. Conclusion The authors have concluded that the application of skin- glue in the PIVC insertion site along with the standardized care given by Queensland- Department of Health may minimize the rate of failure of peripheral- IV catheter in adult emergency department patients who are admitted in the hospital. The apparent reduction in the PIVC failure rate can benefit the patients by promoting comfort with outcomes and reduction of hospital admissions and costs that are caused due to complications. In 2016, Budgen found that the use of skin- glue that is made up of cyanoacrylates could make the peripheral- IV catheter lines harder and hence un-intentional removal and infection rate is reduced (HospiMedica, 2016). These findings suggest that use of skin- glue in PIVC will indirectly avoid interruption to therapy as well as prevent unnecessary anxiety and discomforts in re-inserting PIVC. Systemic sepsis that occurs in 0.1% of PIVC failure patients could also be prevented by this method (Stuart, 201 3). Relevance to nursing practice The nurses as the care takers should provide a quality nursing care to all the people at all the settings. The modern nurses have to be expertise in all the aspects of nursing care. The nurses should strive to conduct research and develop more evidences so as to enhance the nursing care by providing evidence based care to the patients. The most important role of the nurses involves preventing illness, protecting health as well as promoting health (ICN, 2010, ANA, 2010). As nurses form the primary care- giver in the emergency department of all the hospitals, they have to be expertise in various care modalities including care of peripheral- venous catheters and protect it from its premature failure and dislodgement of the catheter, infection at the catheter insertion skin site and occlusions of catheter due to blood clot or phlebitis (Rebelem, 2016). Most of the patients admitted in the emergency department of hospitals are started with peripheral IV catheter line to start infusion and medicines so as to save the life of the patient among which 33% - 69% of IV- devices fails causing discomfort to the patients. The major predisposing factor to premature device failure involves the improper fixation of the peripheral- IV catheter to the limb of patient leading to not only dislodgement but also micro-motion resulting in irritation of vein leading to phlebitis and occlusion causing entry of micro- organisms from skin into the catheter entry- site leading to severe infection (Marsh, 2015a). This form of peripheral- IV catheter failure occurs mostly after 48 hours of insertion which implies that improvement has to be made for securement in this timeframe. Hence, nurses should secure the peripheral- IV catheter with some securement especially cyanoacrylates skin- glue near the catheter insertion site to create adherence of catheter with the patients skin so as to avoid premature failure. The nurses should conduct further research to use skin- glue to prevent failures in larger population to generalize the results. The CDC guidelines (2011) has designated that replacing intravenous catheters forms an unresolved care issue that indicates need for further research (OGrady, 2011). Peripheral- IV catheter failure causes disruption in therapies of patients such as hydration therapy, antibiotic and analgesic therapy resulting in the deterioration of patients heath adversely and interrupting the treatment process. This also indirectly burdens the patients and their family members by increasing the cost, producing anxiety with discomfort of re-inserting the catheter again and again (Aymes, 2016). Hence, nurses have to increase her expertise to secure the IV line safely so as to protect the patients values and protect their lives. Further, it increases the costs of the health- care system of a country that includes increased nursing staff time in patients care, increased consumables, extended length of hospital stay with increased adverse- event managements. Even, a smaller reduction in the catheter- device failure will definitely transform in-to a larger improvements in patients care, health- outcomes and flow of health and treatment costs. Thus, by practicing skin- glue securing in patients with peripheral- IV catheter, the nurses will definitely improve the patients values and prevent subsequent morbidity, mortality, as well as reduces hospital charges (Stuart, 2013). References ANA. (2010). What is nursing?. Retrieved from https://www.nursingworld.org/Especially ForYou/StudentNurses/ What is nursingaspx Aymes, S. (2016). Skin Glue Reduces IV Failure Rate in the Emergency Department. Retrieved from https://www.acepnow.com/skin-glue-reduces-iv-failure-rate-in-the-emergency-department/ Callaham, M. L. (2017). Annals of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of theAmerican College of Emergency Physicians. Retrieved from https://www.journals.elsevier.com/annals-of-emergency-medicine HospiMedica. (2016). IV Drip Failure Reduced by Skin Glue Application. Retrieved from https://www.hospimedica.com/critical-care/articles/294767305/iv-drip-failure-reduced-by-skin-glue-application.html ICN (2010). The ICN definition of Nursing. Retrieved fromvhttps://www.ich.in/definition.htm Limm, E.I et al. (2013). Half of all peripheral intravenous lines in an Australian tertiary emergency department are unused: pain with no gain?: Ann Emerg Med. 62:521-525. Marsh, N et al. (2015a). Devices and dressings to secure peripheral venous catheters to prevent complications [review]: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 6:CD011070. Marsh, N et al. (2015b). Securement methods for peripheral venous catheters to prevent failure: a randomized controlled pilot trial: J Vasc Access.16:237-244. Newcombe, R.G. (2012). Confidence Intervals for Proportions and Related Measures of Effect Size. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=1439812780 OGrady NP, Alexander M, Burns LA, et al. Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. Clin Infect Dis 2011; 52: e16293. Polit, D.F Beck, C.T. (2016). Nursing Research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice. Lippincott Williams Wilkins: New Delhi. Queensland Government Department of Health. (2015). Centre for Healthcare Related Infection Surveillance and Prevention, Queensland Government Department of Health, Australia: Peripheral intravenous catheter (PIVC) guideline. Retrieved from https://www.health.qld.gov.au/publications/clinical-practice/guidelines-procedures/diseases-infection/governance/icare-pivc-guideline.pdf. Rebelem. (2016). Should We Use Skin Glue to Secure Peripheral IVs: R.E.B.E.L. EM. Retrieved from https://rebelem.com/should-we-use-skin-glue-to-secure-peripheral-ivs/ Rickard, C.M et al. (2012). Routine versus clinically indicated replacement of peripheral intravenous catheters: a randomized controlled equivalence trial: Lancet. 380:1066-1074 Stuart, R.L et al. (2013). Peripheral intravenous catheterassociated Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia: more than 5 years of prospective data from two tertiary health services: Med J Aust. 198:551-553. University of South Australia. (n. d.). Critical Appraisal Tools. Retrieved from https://www.unisa.edu.au/Research/Sansom-Institute-for-Health-Research/Research/Allied-Health-Evidence/Resources/CAT/#Randomised Wallis, M.C et al. (2014). Risk factors for peripheral intravenous catheter failure: a multivariate analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial: Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol.35: 63-68. Webster, J et al. (2010). Clinically-indicated replacement versus routine replacement of peripheral venous catheters: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 3: CD007798.
Monday, April 6, 2020
Introduction This section lays a foundation on the subject of sibling relationships. The goal is to give the reader a highlight of the content of the paper. Research on children relationships takes three divergent routes. The research on parentÃ¢â¬âchild relationships focuses on how parents establish and/or maintain relationships with their children.Advertising We will write a custom thesis sample on ParentÃ¢â¬âChild and Sibling Relationships specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The second approach entails how children form relationships with their peers in different social settings such as schools. The third approach, which is the focus of this thesis, is on children relationships with their siblings. This relationship exists long after the demise of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s parents and long before one meets his or her spouse. In this sense, it may be regarded as the longest relationship that people form in their lives. It determines child ren social capabilities and their capacity to resolve conflicts positively. Hence, the connection is critical in their emotional and cognitive developments (Kennedy, Kramer, 2008, p. 568). Using peer-reviewed journal articles, the current thesis begins with a discussion of the general informational and historical background of sibling relationships. It then discusses impacts of sibling relationships, their differences across cultures, factors that influence them and their effects on siblings. In the last section, the thesis addresses the ways of ensuring closeness in sibling relationships. The Sibling Relationships Historical Views on Sibling Relations This section presents the psychoanalytic approach to family relations as one of the earliest attempts to explain sibling relationships. This school of thought is associated with psychologist Sigmund Freud. Sigmund interpreted sibling relations as a manifestation of Oedipus complex where male siblings competed for maternal attention w hile female siblings compete for the attention of their fathers (De Vleminck, 2010, p. 173).Advertising Looking for thesis on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Although contentious, psychologists such as Alfred Adler assert that siblings build their personality through struggles to gain significance from their parents and that birth order is an important determinant of the development of sibling personalities (Boll, Ferring, Filipp, 2005, p. 155). According to Howe (2012), psychologist David Levy suggested in 1941 that siblings exhibit rivalry with older siblings (p. 1). They show an aggressive behavior towards new infant siblings in such a typical way so that it can be sufficiently considered a normal character of sibling relationships. Any behavior towards a newborn sibling is related to the perception of different changes in the previous relationships between firstborns and the parents so that peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s psy chological processes can be said to influence sibling relationships. Cross-section and longitudinal researches that were conducted in the 21st century reveal that sibling relations influence the personality of individuals. With the identified risk factors to poor sibling relationships, various studies by identify aggression prevention and conflicts prevention as important strategies for creating positive sibling relationships (Murray, Dwyer, Rubin, Knighton-Wisor, Booth-LaForce, 2014, p.1361; Buist Vermande, 2014, p.529). In the literature on quality of sibling relationships, the focus has been made on studying psychological implications of sibling relationships, variations in sibling relationships in societies, and the implications of their successful and unsuccessful development. Characteristics of Sibling Relationships This bit presents sibling relationships as an issue that is characterized by conflicts, intimacy, rivalry, and warmth during childhood, adolescence, and adulthoo d (Dixon, Reyes, Leppert Pappas, 2008, p. 119).Advertising We will write a custom thesis sample on ParentÃ¢â¬âChild and Sibling Relationships specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The type of sibling relationships depends on different factors such as attachment levels, the environment in which children are brought up, and/or family constellation. For example, the process of modernization and industrialization increases social mobility such that siblings become detached from one another with time (Knigge, Maas, Leeuwen, Mandemakers, 2014, p.549). Attachment between children and their parents has a powerful role in the development of social-emotional traits at childhood. Ward, Vaughan, and Robb (1988) posit that parent-child attachments predict future child aptitude and interaction behaviors with peers and siblings since the kids tend to emulate their parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviors (p.643). A scholarly contention has been witnessed that early children relationships are critical in determining their identity and personality. Since parents and siblings form the first relationships with infants, there has been intense interest in studying the influence of parents and sibling relationships on psychological development of children from infancy and early childhood through adolescence to adulthood (Kolak, Volling, 2011, p. 214). Hence, it is crucial to investigate the issue of conflicts that characterizes parent-sibling interactions.Advertising Looking for thesis on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conflict among siblings is a common characteristic of the sibling relationship. Conflicting relationships among siblings may result from learning (Bascoe, Davies, Cummings, 2012, p. 2121). Children learn to be violent from observing parents and adults who engage in violent acts. Therefore, it is possible for children brought up by parents who regularly have domestic wrangles to be violent. Siblings also learn conflict resolution and management from their immediate environment. Sibling rivalry is also a common phenomenon. Children learn rivalry from their environment. When parents, relatives, and neighbors involve themselves in rivalry, children consider enmity an acceptable behavior (Campione-Barr, Bassett Greer, Schwab Kruse, 2014, p. 666). Therefore, they follow by imitating and replicating the behavior. However, the development of such characteristics is highly dependent on individual childÃ¢â¬â¢s characteristics and guidance from parents. Impact of Sibling Relationships This section explores the benefits of successful sibling relations with peers, parents, relatives, and teachers. The section further explores the effects of unsuccessful sibling relationships. Successful sibling relationship refers to a situation where people from a certain family end up demonstrating a long-lasting mutual relationship that is marked by the cooperation of all members, regardless of their marital status or job rank as they grow up. Benefits of Successful Sibling Relationships As this section reveals, sibling relations are associated with benefits such as the privilege of enjoying the companionship of each other and the sharing of each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s emotions in a joyous setting. Individuals who have successful relationships end up enjoying the companionship of each of the siblings. Feinberg, Sakuma, Hostetler, and McHale (2013) assert that most people in the US are more likely to have siblings to get the aforementioned camaraderie (p.97). In the European-American context , the authors also reckon that childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s most time is spent in the company of siblings as opposed to any other person. In the minority groups, siblings play the role of companionship and care giving (Feinberg et al., 2013, p.97). Therefore, it is important to ensure sibling closeness as a strategy that guarantees positive interactions. Feinberg et al. (2013) present SAS (Siblings Are Special) program for preventing adolescence-related behavioral problems, which may decrease sibling closeness by impairing the quality of their relationships (p. 98). Analysis of the program reveals that SAS model is important in increasing sibling engagements. Sibling interactions form the basic tenets for developing relationship skills. Building positive relationships is impossible without a compromise. Indeed, Feinberg et al. (2013) assert that sibling relations are built on frequent and high conflict levels compared to any other close relationship in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives (p.98). Aggressive behavior is also common among siblings. Therefore, the closeness between siblings can be increased by encouraging constructive conflicts to help in establishing avenues for building trust among them. In this process, attention should be focused on reducing antagonism, quests for domineering other siblings, and negative criticism. Specifically, parents have major responsibilities to ensure fairness and equality amongst siblings to minimize power struggles. Siblings who have successful associations exchange their emotions in an environment of love, engagement in conflicts, and support. Although aggression among siblings has been considered an acceptable phenomenon, it potentially influences childhood and adolescent adjustments (p.2). The researcher finds proactive aggressive behavior among siblings, increased use of substances, and high depressive moods as important risk factors for child delinquency. These relationships persist even after the researchers adjust various family differe nces, stress, and even social-graphic variations (Tucker et al., 2014, p.1). Therefore, minimization of proactive aggression among siblings can aid in increasing their closeness. Oh et al. (2015) examined the longitudinal trajectories in behaviors of young children towards their infants in the context of avoidance, antagonism, and positive engagement (p. 126). 50% of all the investigated children were well engaged. Such children portrayed outstanding levels of engagement with their siblingsÃ¢â¬â¢ infants who were characterized by little incidents of avoidance and antagonism (Oh et al., 2015, p.126). This claim suggests that reducing antagonism and avoidance behaviors towards infants by other siblings through enhancing positive engagement can help to increase closeness among siblings. For adolescents who are transiting to colleges, Lindell, Campione-Barr, and Greer (2014) reckon the need to put in place strategies for ensuring continued positive relationships between the first and second born as the firstborn transits into college is important for the sustenance of close sibling relationships in the future years, including adulthood (p. 79). Such strategies entail maintaining adequate egalitarian relationship during childhood and reducing sibling conflicts both in childhood and in adolescence (Lindell et al., 2014, p.80). Negative Effects of Unsuccessful Sibling Relations As this section reveals, unsuccessful sibling relationships have negative implications such as sibling victimization and psychological issues that lead to conflicts. Sibling victimization may involve physical assault, which leads to injury. Such injuries produce negative psychological effects on the victim. The situation may lead to rivalry and lower warmth between siblings. Although psychology scholars contend that aggression is normal among siblings, aggression that leads to victimization indicates unsuccessful sibling relationships. Iturralde et al. (2013) identify moderating effects of s uccessful sibling relationships in adjusting to inter-parental conflicts (p. 716). Therefore, unsuccessful sibling relations heighten the threshold of negative effects of inter-parental conflicts. There is growing research evidence that links psychological issues to sibling relationships. For example, Buist and Vermande (2014) assert that sibling relationships have identifiable implications on psychosocial functioning of children (p.529). Some of the indicators of the level of quality sibling relationships are warmth and conflicts (Randell, Peterson, 2009, p. 859). Warmth refers to the psychological feeling of intimacy and the capacity of a sibling to provide companionship (Gamble, Yu, Kuehn, 2011, p. 606). Emotional attraction towards oneÃ¢â¬â¢s siblings determines whether to connect more or retract from the siblingsÃ¢â¬â¢ warmth or companionship. Hatred constitutes a psychological emotion that influences sibling relationships. Hatred and perceptions of competition for parent al attention can influence the degree of closeness between siblings. The two elements have the potential of forming sibling relationships based on negative conflicts and proactive aggression. Influences on Sibling Relationships Introduction This section provides various studies that have been done concerning the influence of cross-cultures on sibling relations. The section presents cross-culture, identity, personality, and social development as some of the areas that sibling relationships tend to influence. Cross-Culture Effects Individualist customs that are prevalent in America and some parts of Europe highlight individual accomplishment, irrespective of the cost of team ambitions. Such customs lead to a tough rivalry. Collectivist customs that are common in China focus on the folks and group agenda, as opposed to personal needs. In their literature review on cross-cultural differences in sibling relationships, Buist, Paalman, and Branje (2014) identify different studies that conf irm cultural differences in sibling relationships among western and non-western societies (p. 267). They reveal how past studies define sibling relationships in terms of love-hate dimension, which reflects individuation and competition that are associated with western cultures (Buist et al., 2014, p.267). In the western cultures, siblings have a discretionary type of sibling interactions. They are encouraged to remain in close contact. Some elder brothers and sisters may be required to assume the role of taking care of their other younger blood relatives while their parents assume the main duty of attending to their kids. However, in the case of non-industrialized cultures, forming relationships with younger siblings constitutes an obligation for older siblings (Buist et al., 2014, p.267). This observation suggests that cultural norms and values advocate strong cooperation and closeness among siblings in such cultures (Kretschmer, Pike, 2010, p. 411). Culture defines norms, values, and ways of thinking of a given group of people. These aspects may determine the mechanisms for forming social relationships between siblings. Buist et al. (2014) examined sibling relationships in the cross-cultural context by comparing the quality of sibling associations among the Moroccan and Dutch sibling samples (p. 269). After collecting data through questionnaires and analyzing it, the researchers found a significant difference in the quality of sibling relationships amongst Moroccan and Dutch adolescents. The Moroccan siblings reported high levels of quality relationships and lower prevalence levels of behavior problems compared to the Dutch adolescents (Buist et al., 2014, p.269). Nevertheless, problems of anxiety and depression among the siblings in both Moroccan and Dutch samples were similar (Buist et al., 2014, p.272). Different cultures adopt different parenting styles. In the Mexican descent society, Gamble and Yu (2014) observe how democratic parenting supports sibli ng relationships that are characterized by less egoism and high levels of warmth (p.223). Identity As this paragraph confirms, different identities and socialization processes that form the personality of siblings may impair sibling associations due to disagreements and low cooperation levels. Through differentiation, during puberty and maturity, siblings distinguish themselves from others to create uniqueness in behaviors and socialization processes (Wong et al., 2010, p.674). Cultures such as Indonesia and Costa Rica are identified by their value of the family unit (Yaman, Mesman, Jzendoorn, Bakermans-Kranenburg, Linting, 2010, p. 619). Hence, children and teenagers show more security, intimacy, companionship, and satisfaction when they are with their siblings than when they are with their friends. Youths in countries such as the USA find happiness and acceptance from their friends (Yaman et al., 2010). Time for most of the USA children is spent in shared activities with friends. Family-oriented societies, also known as collectivistic cultures, enhance more sibling interdependence where the situation of children looking out for each other defines the daily life (Yaman et al., 2010, p. 621). In South Asian communities, children play important responsibilities in the course of their continued existence. Running of home properties, birthright sharing, and important formal procedures are effectively taken care of by brothers and sisters. In idiosyncratic societies, a high significance is given to personal accomplishments. Yaman et al. (2010) conduct a study on collectivist and individualistic cultures (p. 618). According to Yaman et al. (2010), collectivist cultures are identified by their participation in cooperative tasks (p. 621). Besides, much focus is given to what people have in common. Individualistic societies are characterized by participation in competitive duties. Much weight is given to what makes the individuals unique (Yaman et al., 2010, p. 621). Affluence, independence, and variety among siblings are given importance in the individualistic setting. Siblings in the individualistic settings grow to be strong and self-independent (Yaman et al., 2010, p. 620). Eccentricity exists in Western Europe and a large part of the US while the communal society is evident in Asia and some Europe regions among other places. Due to the self-independent nature of the individualistic society, children in such a society mature and discover themselves at an early age. Development prevails in the individualistic society because siblings value personal achievement and sovereignty (Yaman et al., 2010, p. 621). Personality This section shows how sibling relationships shape the personality of many kids, when it comes to the sharing of skills and ideas with their peers, especially if they have same age bracket where they spend most of their times interacting as a team. Children utilize most of their time with their peers than their parents while gro wing up. Through this interaction, Cicirelli (1995) confirms how they form their characters and learn effective skills on socializing and taking care of each other (p. 23). Therefore, siblings act as cultural brokers who transfer values and practices across generations. Regardless of the widespread inclination in sibling associations, the society shows differences in family affairs. In industrialized nations such as the United States, siblings are defined mainly by biological relations, which focus on the immediate family as the defining factor of relationship. In other countries, all kids within an equivalent age bracket are considered brothers and sisters, while other cultures deploy a discrete characterization to distinguish brothers and sisters by considering their masculinity or femininity traits and birth arrangements. More respect and responsibility are usually placed on older siblings across all generations. Children influence each other as they grow. A kidÃ¢â¬â¢s peers de termine his or her character. Parents across cultures are always aware of this fact since most of them end up advising their kids on the groups of peers that they need to interact with or avoid. They have always been judgmental of their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s company. While growing, children consider things such as birth order, sex, and age to select their mates (Robertson, Shepherd, Goedeke, 2014, p.37). Collective cultures and individualistic cultures differ when it comes to sibling relationships. Collective cultures tend to be more family-oriented (Yaman et al., 2010). They have shown a significant level of sibling relations and involvement. Brothers and sisters in communal backgrounds such as the Latinos utilize approximately half of their valuable moments with their peers and relatives as opposed to the American kids who do not utilize as much duration with their relatives. They tend to find more value in spending time with their friends. Social Development This segment shows how c ollectivistic societies instill the culture of family cohesion, cooperation, togetherness, and conformity to the set standards. The section shows how this culture cultivates an environment of unity and love where all members are free to seek and get crucial advice from the rest when it comes to accomplishing any task in the family. The idiosyncratic society upholds personal growth and the communication of individual issues. When the American children who grew in an individualistic society are asked to express themselves or narrate a story that they had been told before, most of them are specific. They describe the story from a personal experience than Korean or Chinese kids who grew up in a collective society (Yaman et al., 2010, p. 619). Children in the collective society evaluate stories from a positive aspect and discuss other people more than the American children. The mind of children in individualistic societies is more specific. It focuses on individual situations that they h ave encountered. On the other hand, the mindset of children in a collective society is more general and less emotional. Their thinking is social relationship-focused. These patterns and differences in mindset and reasoning are seen because western cultures enhance autonomy (Yaman et al., 2010, p. 620). They put significance on personal qualities. Hence, siblings in such cultures are raised to stand out and speak for themselves, whereas eastern cultures improve togetherness and give importance to the group. Siblings here are brought up to focus on the society around them. The cultural differences in siblings across culture persist even into their adult life. College students in the individualistic society talk about personal preferences and autonomy in relation to their partners in the collective society. Despite the differences in a relationship due to cultural differences, siblings can integrate more than their culture when exposed to a different environment where they can form a b icultural identity (Yaman et al., 2010, p. 619). Influence on the Quality of Sibling Relations Successful Relationships Parent/Peer-Child Interaction As this section reveals, successful sibling relationships produce positive effects on the growth and development of children from their childhood through adolescence to adulthood. Such effects can be grouped into peer/parent-child, child-environment interaction, and child-power status. Sibling relationships constitute one of the long lasting relationships in an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s life (Iturralde, Margolin, Shapiro, 2013, p.717). Such interactions also act as the foundation for the formation of other relationships such as a positive affiliation with peers and parents (Downey et al., 2015, p. 274). For instance, successful sibling associations increase warmth and emotional attachments between children and their parents and peers (Buist Vermande, 2014, p.529). Therefore, success in inducing positive sibling relationships is important f or better sibling interaction with other peers in their adolescent and adulthood (Campione-Barr, Smetana, 2010, p. 464). Cultural value theory and ethnic equivalence hypothesis explain how differences in familial relationships influence the quality sibling relationships (Padilla-Walker, Harper, Jensen, 2010, p. 420). Families that have different ethnicity when compared to the main cultures thrive in alternative value systems. This situation has the implication of encountering similar experiences among specific family contexts to produce deviations in the meaning of certain elements that define sibling relationships among minority families. Ethnic equivalence theory holds that familial relations do not have direct impacts on the outcomes of children since they surpass any ethnic boundary to display universality in terms of their influence. This claim implies that no significant differences in sibling relationships are anticipated in cross-cultural contexts. The assemblage of famili es, their structure, and traits of each child influence value sibling relationships. Assemblage implies the number of brothers and sisters, birth progression, kids and grownupsÃ¢â¬â¢ gender and years, the level of interaction (taken up or brother/sister), and kidsÃ¢â¬â¢ intervals. Despite the fact that different types of family relationships play a key part in influencing sibling relationships, the quality of parent-children relationship greatly influences sibling relationships. Differences that are peculiar to each child are important in influencing their interaction (Shalash, Wood, Parker, 2013, p.288). For example, young children have temperament as an important factor that determines their relationships while older children have cognitive, personality, and social skills, which are important determinants of sibling relationships (Murray et al., 2014, p.1363). Factors that influence the quality of sibling rapport are related to one another. For example, Dixon et al. (2008) ob served the relationships between personality and birth order in large families (families with 6 or more siblings) using a sample size of 361 siblings (p. 119). The researchers focused on Neuroticism, Psychoticism, and extraversion personality traits (Dixon et al., 2008, p.119). Using hierarchical model, the researchers also scrutinized the impacts of age, size of families, and gender on the siblingsÃ¢â¬â¢ personality. They identified an age effect on the extraversion personality while the size of families and gender did not produce any significant impacts on any of the investigated personality aspects (Dixon et al., 2008, p.119). This observation suggests that age has an effect on the quality of sibling relationships. As the age increases, it influences the personality of individual siblings. Oh, Volling, and Gonzalez (2015) indicate that the quality of sibling relationships changes with time, as it is emotionally less intense among middle-aged siblings and those in the adolescent stage (p.120). Although the family environment during the siblingsÃ¢â¬â¢ childhood may have produced high-quality relationships, they (siblings) experience lower quality relationships at adulthood due to the competing pressures of their work and individual families. Child-Environment Interaction The environment in which siblings are brought up influences the quality of their relationships. The environment can be shared or not (Dixon et al., 2008, p.120). Mutual surroundings such as growing up in the same home produce more similarities in terms of character definition while the non-shared atmosphere is associated with character variations that may be observed among brothers and sisters. Siblings may also fail to share the same environment due to their birth order. Thus, they undergo different experiences, which influence their personalities differently (Dixon et al., 2008, p.120). Although the birth sequence may affect the quality of interaction in terms of their peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s d istinctiveness, there lacks scholarly evidence and agreement on how it exactly influences the personality of individuals. However, the power difference that is associated with the birth order has effects on the quality of sibling relationships. Child-Power Status Firstborns are co-caregivers in many nonwestern societies. Thus, they function as surrogates parents. This situation makes them enjoy high power over other siblings in a family. The power status increases with an increasing age gap between siblings. It also varies depending on gender. For example, older girls are known in some cultures as better caregivers and teachers to their younger siblings relative to older boys. Dixon et al. (2008) assert that birth order has effects on the quality of sibling relationships (p.120). Firstborns feel more threatened by a second born since they have to share their power and parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ attention and affection with the second and subsequent births. Second and subsequent births may not feel this threat since they find power already vested in the firstborn sibling. In a cross-sectional study, Whiteman, McHale, and Crouter (2007) examined the influence of older siblings on younger siblings (p. 970). They assessed aspects such as peer competence, interests in sports and arts, and engagement in risky behaviors. The researchers found a positive correlation between the reported temporary involvement together with intimacy and positive influence for younger siblings (Whiteman et al., 2007, p.963). Indeed, siblings reported similarities in terms of engagement, interest in the examined domains and high competence when older ones had the power of influence to the younger ones (Whiteman et al., 2007, p.970). In nonwestern cultures, sibling relationships are characterized by high cooperation. To verify this claim, Song and Volling (2015) examined the relationship between co-parenting, temperament among firstborns, and cooperative behaviors upon request by their mothers to hel p in changing their one-month-old infant diapers (p. 130). Questionnaires were given to gather primary data concerning the assessment of parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ temperament and cooperative behaviors of their children. Song and Volling (2015) confirm the study results that suggest that irrespective of mothersÃ¢â¬â¢ demographic characteristics, co-parenting influences the quality of sibling relationships whereby soothability acts as an important determinant of cooperation among siblings (p. 130). Unsuccessful Relationships Many factors cause unsuccessful relationships among siblings. They include sibling birth and aggressive behavior/victimization. This segment considers poor reception of a subsequent birth by other siblings an important determinant of failing sibling relationships. Volling et al. (2014) assert that mothers report high opposition behaviors among firstborns against their siblings in three weeks after birth (p.634). This situation causes noncompliance and naughty conducts amo ng firstborns. For mothers, such manners cause a considerable amount of stress. Firstborns who eagerly wait for their siblingsÃ¢â¬â¢ birth respond in an affectionate manner as a call for caring of the infant sibling few days after birth (Volling et al., 2014, p.634). This claim suggests that where firstborns receive their second born and subsequent siblings as threats to their power structures with their parents, they (subsequent siblings) are likely to receive them negatively. This case leads to poor quality sibling relationships at an early age where the family environment does not shape the initial negative perceptions accordingly. Indeed, among adult siblings, the quality of their relationships depends on their childhood familial environment (Dixon et al., 2008, p.120). Through LPA (latent profile analysis), Volling et al. (2014) researched the reactions of children to their fathers or mothersÃ¢â¬â¢ interactions with newborn sibling infants (p. 634). The examined parents rep orted a high prevalence of behavioral problems among children after one to four months of sibling birth. A new birth creates an emotion of jealousy in an older sibling (Volling et al., 2014, p. 634). This case creates a rivalry behavior. Nevertheless, having a sibling has positive effects on educational skill attainment. Downey, Condron, and Yucel (2015) found that children who did not have siblings lagged behind in the attainment of social skills from kindergarten to the fifth grade compared to those who had either brothers or sisters (p. 273). This observation suggests that siblings influence one other positively through social skill development where each relative is free to share his or her social skills such as playing particular games and group singing among other social activities. In fact, as Downey et al. (2015) confirm with reference to social skill development, the quality of sibling affiliation, which increases social skill attainment, depends on sibling interactions in a family context (p. 273). The quality of such interactions then influences the capacity of siblings to form positive relationships with their peers in other social settings such as schools. Tanrikulu and Campell (2014) investigated the engagement of siblings in bullying behavior (p. 1). Drawing from 455 participants from grade 5-12, the findings indicated a high percentage of traditional bullying behavior for siblings relative to bullying by peers. Despite the low number of intimidators in cyber and other localities, brothers and sisters mentioned unfair treatment and sophisticated deeds in the process of carrying out harassment. Maltreatment is a negative behavior. It affects peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s creativity levels, reduces morale, may cause accidents, influences negatively moral and ethical judgment capacity, and/or hinders people from realizing their full potential in their areas of talent (Feinberg et al., 2013, p. 97). Thus, its possession among siblings indicates unsuccessful sibli ng relations. Aggression and victimization are associated with unsuccessful sibling relations. For example, Tucker, Finkelhor, Turner, and Shattuck (2014) present a growing body of research that indicates how victimization among siblings has direct relationships with poor mental health (p.625). The researchers hypothesize that conflicts between parents and violence in families influence experiences of children in victimization. Upon conducting a multinomial regression analysis, the results indicate that sibling victimization relates to negative family experiences. This observation implies that parentÃ¢â¬âchildren relationships are important not only for a successful development of sibling relations, but also for mitigation of sibling engagement in family conflicts (Recchia Howe, 2008, p. 1564). However, although negative conflicts among siblings may indicate unsuccessful sibling relations, positive conflicts are important as the basis of developing respect and trust among siblin gs. Conclusion This study has established issues that parents should focus on in their parenting roles to ensure that siblings develop and maintain positive relationships from childhood to adolescence and even in adulthood. The study emphasizes that parents should note that although issues that influence the quality of sibling relationships such as their separation when they attend colleges or relocation in search of jobs are inevitable, they have the capacity to create and control the environment for developing and sustaining their positive relationship. They need to mitigate factors that lead to poor quality sibling relationships. Research on various normative issues that influence sibling relations at adulthood identifies childhood environment as an important issue that determines the quality of the relationship. Siblings who grow up in families that have cohesive ties exhibit closer relationships. Psychological factors such as emotional attention between siblings and warmth affe ct the element of closeness among siblings. Proactive aggression and negative conflicts have the effect of lowering the quality of sibling relationships. Thus, to create closeness among siblings, parents need to provide an enabling environment for facilitating their close interactions by eliminating risk factors that allow the growth of conflicts, which may lead to the emergence of aggressive behaviors among siblings. Reference List Bascoe, M., Davies, T., Cummings, M. (2012). Beyond Warmth and Conflict: The Developmental Utility of a Boundary Conceptualization of Sibling Relationship Processes. Child Development, 83(6), 2121-2138. Boll, T., Ferring, D., Filipp, S. (2005). Effects of Parental Differential Treatment on Relationship Quality with Siblings and Parents: Justice Evaluations as Mediators. Social Justice Research, 18(2), 155-182. Buist, K., Vermande, M. (2014). Sibling Relationships and their Associations with Child Competence and Problems Behavior. Journal of Family Psy chology, 28(4), 529-537. Buist, K., Paalman, C., Branje, S. (2014). Longitudinal Effects of Sibling Relationships Quality on Adolescent Problems Behavior: A Cross-Ethnic Comparison. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 20(2), 266-275. Campione-Barr, N., Smetana, J. (2010). Who Said You Could Wear My Sweater?Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ Adolescent SiblingsÃ¢â¬â¢ Conflicts and Associations With Relationship Quality. Child Development, 81(2), 464Ã¢â¬â471. Campione-Barr, N., Bassett Greer, K., Schwab, K., Kruse, A. (2014). Differing Domains of Actual Sibling Conflict Discussions and Associations with Conflict Styles and Relationship Quality. Social Development, 23(4), 666-683. Cicirelli, G. (1995). Sibling Relationships across The Life Span. New York, NY: Plenum Press. De Vleminck, J. (2010). Oedipus and Cain: Brothers in arms. International Forum of Psychoanalysis, 19(3), 172-184. Dixon, M., Reyes, C., Leppert, M., Pappas, L. (2008). Personality and Birth order in Large Fami lies. Personality and Individual Differences, 44(1), 119-128. Downey, D., Condron, D., Yucel, D. (2015). Number of Siblings and Social Skills Revisited Among American Fifth Graders. Journal of Family Issues, 36(2), 273-296. Feinberg, M., Sakuma, K., Hostetler, M., McHale, S. (2013). Enhancing Sibling Relationships to Prevent Adolescent Problems Behaviors: Theory, Design And Feasibility of Sibling Are Special. Evaluation and Program Planning, 36(3), 97-106. Gamble, W., Yu, J. (2014). Young ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Sibling Relationship Interactional types: Associations with Family Characteristics, Parenting, and Child Characteristics. Early Education and Development, 25(1), 223-239. Gamble, W., Yu, J., Kuehn, E. (2011). Adolescent Sibling Relationship Quality and Adjustment: Sibling Trustworthiness and Modeling, as Factors Directly and Indirectly Influencing These Associations. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. Howe, C. (2012, Nov. 24). Sibling Rivalry: One Long Food Fight. The NYT, pp. 1-3. Iturralde, E., Margolin, G., Shapiro, L. (2013). Positive and Negative Interactions Observed Between Siblings: Moderating Effects for Children Exposed to Parents Conflict. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 23(4), 716-729. Kennedy, D., Kramer, L. (2008). Improving Emotion Regulation and Sibling Relationship Quality: The More Fun With Sisters and Brothers Program. Family Relations, 57(1), 567Ã¢â¬â578. Kennedy, M., Betts, L., Underwood, J. (2014). Moving Beyond the MotherÃ¢â¬âChild Dyad: Exploring the Link between Maternal Sensitivity and SiblingsÃ¢â¬â¢ Attachment Styles. The Journal of Genetic Psychology: Research and Theory on Human Development, 175(4), 287-300. Knigge, A., Maas, I., Leeuwen, M., Mandemakers, K. (2014). Status Attainment of Siblings during Modernization. American Sociological Review, 79(3), 549-574. Kolak, A., Volling, B. (2011). Sibling Jealousy in Early Childhood: Longitudinal Links to Sibling Relationship Quality. Infant and Child Development, 20(1), 213Ã¢â¬â226. Kretschmer, T., Pike, A. (2010). Associations Between Adolescent SiblingsÃ¢â¬â¢ Relationship Quality and Similarity and Differences in Values. Journal of Family Psychology, 24(4), 411Ã¢â¬â418 Lindell, A., Campione-Barr, N., Greer, K. (2014). Associations between Adolescent Sibling Conflicts and Relationship Quality during Transitions to College. Emerging Adulthood, 2(2), 79-91. Murray, K., Dwyer, K., Rubin, K., Knighton-Wisor, S., Booth-LaForce, C. (2014). Parent-Child Relationships, Parental Psychological Control and Aggression: Maternal and Parental Relationships. Journal of Youth Adolescence, 43(1), 1361-1373. Oh, W., Volling, B., Gonzalez, R. (2015). Trajectories of ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Social Interactions with their Infant Sibling in the First Year: A Multidimensional Approach. Journal of Family Psychology, 29(1), 119-129. Padilla-Walker, L., Harper, J., Jensen, A. (2010). Self-Regulation as a Mediator Between Sibling Relationship Quality and Earl y AdolescentsÃ¢â¬â¢ Positive and Negative Outcomes. Journal of Family Psychology, 24(4), 419-428. Randell, A., Peterson, C. (2009). Affective Qualities of Sibling Disputes, MothersÃ¢â¬â¢ Conflict Attitudes, and ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory of Mind Development. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. Recchia, H., Howe, N. (2008). Associations Between Social Understanding, Sibling Relationship Quality, and SiblingsÃ¢â¬â¢ Conflict Strategies and Outcomes. Child Development, 80(5), 1564Ã¢â¬â1578. Robertson, R., Shepherd, D., Goedeke, S. (2014). Fighting Like Brother and Sister: Sibling Relationships and Future Adult Romantic Relationship Quality. Australian Psychologist, 49(1), 37-43. Shalash, M., Wood, D., Parker, S. (2013). Our Problems Are Your SiblingÃ¢â¬â¢s Fault: Exploring the Connections Between Conflict Styles of Siblings During Adolescence and Later Adult Committed Relationships. American Journal of Family Therapy, 41(4), 288-298. Song, J., Volling, B. (2015). Co-parentin g and ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Temperament Predict FirstbornsÃ¢â¬â¢ Cooperation in the Care of an Infant Sibling. Journal of Family Psychology, 29(1), 130-135. Tanrikulu, I., Campell, M. (2014). Sibling Bullying Perpetration: Associations with Gender, Grade, Peer Perpetration, Trait Anger, and Moral Disengagement. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 1(1), 1-15. Tucker, C., Finkelhor, D., Turner, H., Shattuck, A. (2014). Family Dynamics and Young ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Sibling Victimization, Journal of Family Psychology, 28(5), 625-633. Tucker, C., Gundy, K., Wiesen-Martin, D., Sharp, E., Rebellon, C., Strcuzzi, N. (2014). Proactive and Reactive Sibling Aggression and Adjustment in Adolescence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 1(1), 1-23. Volling, B., Yu, T., Gonzalez, R., Kennedy, D., Rosenberg, L., Oh, W. (2014). Children are Responses to Mother-Infant and Interaction with a Baby Sibling: Jealousy or Joy? Journal of Family Psychology, 28(5), 634-644. Ward, M., Vaughan, B., Robb, M. (19 88). Social-Emotional Adaptations and Infant-Mother Attachment in Siblings: Role of the Mother in Cross-Sibling Consistency. Child Development, 59(1), 643-651. Whiteman, S., McHale, S., Crouter, A. (2007). Explaining Sibling Similarities: Perceptions of Sibling Influences. Journal of Youth Adolescence, 36(1), 963-972. Wong, T., Branje, S., VanderValk, I., Hawk, S., Meeus, W. (2010). The Roles of Sibling in Identity Development in Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood. Journal of Adolescence, 33(2), 673-682. Yaman, A., Mesman, J., Jzendoorn, M., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M., Linting, M. (2010). Parenting in an Individualistic Culture with a Collectivistic Cultural Background: The Case of Turkish Immigrant Families with Toddlers in the Netherlands. Journal of Child Family Studies, 19(5), 617-628. This thesis on ParentÃ¢â¬âChild and Sibling Relationships was written and submitted by user Alessandra O. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Monday, March 9, 2020
Explore the theme of love in Auden Essays Explore the theme of love in Auden Paper Explore the theme of love in Auden Paper Essay Topic: W H auden Poems This was an arranged marriage which allowed her to have the British citizenship and escape from Nazi Germany. Aden met his true love, the poet Chester Coalman, in New York in 1939. Coalman became Addends companion for the rest of his life. Love is a recurrent theme in Addends poetry but so are many others such as world war two, politics, indifference, nature or time. Therefore, we could ask ourselves how important love is in Addends poetry. As Aden has been in love for the major part of his life, a lot of his poems talk about it or at least mention it. Among them, the most famous one is Funeral Blues as it has been used in the movie Four weddings and a funeral. In this poem, Aden talks about the death of his lover. It is one of the rare poems in which Aden assumes his homosexuality when he says He Is Dead. It must be said that at this time, being gay was unacceptable and people could even end up in jail for that (this might be one of the reasons why in the memo Roman Wall Blues, Aden talks about my girl though we know that his lover was a man). In Funeral Blues, the poet describes how the lover meant everything to him, by using the lexical field of space North, South, East, West, time noon, midnight, but also senses such as the view or hearing especially in the first stanza. The entire poem is about the void that the death of the lover has left and how much he counted in Addends life. This is pretty much the same in the poem underneath the abject willow. Indeed, in the two poems the lover is dead. But in the second one, there is a positive note by the middle of the poem Strike and you shall conquer which become more and more imposing by the end of it. It ends up on a sign of hope walk then, come, no longer numb into your satisfaction which is contrasting with the beginning. This sudden change in the characters way of thinking almost makes the reader forget that at first, this poem was written after the lovers death and it could possibly be a way for the author to express his grief. This evolution of atmosphere is common with other poems such as The more loving one. It begins very sadly, the poet seems depressive for all they care, can go to hell. The use vulgarity is a sign of how fed up the poet is. He uses it again in stanza three stars that do not give a damn to emphasis that he has had enough. Indeed, being in love is never easy because as Aden says equal affection cannot be. One person always loves more than the other does. Aden wants to be the more loving one, not as a sign of sacrifice but rather as a sign of understanding of the situation. By the end of the poem, he seems appeased by his choice, or at least a little, and able to put things into respective l should learn to look at an empty sky. In this poem, Aden shows love as omnipresent in peoples lives as it keeps being a concern even at night time, under the stars. The evolution of atmosphere can be from a negative one to a positive one as we have just seen but it can also be inversely such as in O what is that sound and Refugee Blues. Indeed, in both poems, the atmosphere is quite pessimistic in the first stanzas but it becomes more and more obvious that the protagonists are wanted and that the end is going to be tragic. For instance, in O what is that sound, one of the two beakers still has hope in his voice at the beginning only the scarlet soldiers, dear, the soldiers coming but as we continue reading, we can feel that he starts worrying or perhaps a warning, now they are running and by the end, he is as scared as the first speaker is or maybe even more l promised to love you, dear, But I must be leaving. In Refugee Blues, the fact that the protagonists are wanted is really clear as soon as the first stanza yet theres no place for us, my dear, yet theres no place for us but it still becomes more ND more precise as long as we read the poem looking for you and me, my dear, looking for you and me. Those poems are both tragic as we understand that the characters are Jews wanted by the Nazi Germany. Love is here used as a way of moving deeply the reader as we can easily identify in the nickname dear used all along the two poems. The use of the theme of love can also be seen as a ploy to soften the harshness of reality. This use can also be found in Lullaby. Even though the major part of the poem is quite sad, love is present since the beginning lay your sleeping head, my love and until the ND watched by every human love. The love mentioned in this poem is not only romantic love, but also spiritual love. Indeed, Addends speech is quite philosophical, he wonders why the world is as it is. Love is one of the few elements that bring back the reader to the real world. It is shown as a positive thing that makes reality easier to accept. Sometimes though, love is not welcome. This is the case in Miss Gee, in which the old single lady is disgusted by the sight of the loving couples. It can be seen as a sign of jealousy and loneliness.
Friday, February 21, 2020
Write on PREHENSION - Research Paper Example movements of the several segments of fingers and hand we can hold, maintain, release, take the hand to objects or handle them and move them in all directions. Although the hand has multiple functions, the essential function is prehension. Such capacity appears from the tweezers lobster to the hand of the monkey, but in humans prehension reached its highest degree of functionality. This is due to a particular provision of thumb, which may object to all other fingers (Kapandji 1980).Human manipulative tasks are carried out by hand movements, that frequently involve forceful movements and prehension. The movement of the thumb causes the hand to be aligned with the forearm, resulting in a slight ulnar deviation of the wrist. The large number of muscles and joints of the hand obviously provides the equipment for numerous and varied patterns of movement. Not so evident, but equally important in determining complexity and dexterity of motion, are the large areas of the cerebral cortex given over to the coordination of motion and sensation in the hand. Thus, in the motor cortex the area devoted to the hands approximately equals the total area devoted to arms, trunk, and legs.Ã This circumstance ensures great potentiality for coordinated movement and for learning new activities. Similarly, the sensory areas are large, so that they determine such advanced functions as stereognosis, the ability to recognize the shape of an object simply by holding it in the hand. The great tactile sensitivity of the hand is, of course, in large part due to the rich supply of sense organs in the hand surface itself. The threshold for touch in the finger tip, for example, is 2 gm. per sq. mm. as compared toÃ 33Ã and 26 for the forearm and abdomen respectively. Insertion of flexor and extensor muscle systems into several major segments along the proximal distal axis provides a variety of flexion extension patterns in the digits. With these attachments, fixation of carpal and metacarpal